Life Before Lincoln


Library of Congress

All about Point Lookout: Union Prison
A hand drawn picture of Point Lookout prison camp
Gallery View by the same artist

Lincoln Collection
Josephine S. Griffing to Abraham Lincoln, Saturday, September 24, 1864 (Political affairs; Treatment of Freedmen) She was a noted abolitionist.
General Robert H. Milroy to Edwin M. Stanton, Thursday, February 09, 1865 (Seeks command of black soldiers) An abolitionist from Indiana
Abraham Lincoln to Edwin M. Stanton, Tuesday, July 21, 1863 (Recruitment of black soldiers)
John A. Andrew to Charles Sumner, Thursday, June 18, 1863 (Protection for black soldiers)
Francis George Shaw to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, July 31, 1863 (Protection for officers of black soldiers)
Charles Sumner to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, May 23, 1864 (Equal pay for black soldiers; with copy of amendment to Army Appropriations Bill)
John A. Andrew to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, July 27, 1863 (Officers of black regiments)
J. K. H. Wilcox to Abraham Lincoln, Thursday, January 05, 1865 (Telegram reporting resolution passed at Cooper Institute urging suffrage for black soldiers)
Jeremiah T. Boyle to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 26, 1863 (Telegram concerning the enrollment of black soldiers in Kentucky)
Alexander Hamilton to New York Evening Post, Thursday, July 10, 1862 (“Will the Blacks fight?”)
Ambrose E. Burnside to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 26, 1863 (Telegram concerning enrollment of black soldiers in Kentucky)
Charles Sumner to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, May 20, 1863 (Recommends presidential proclamation promising to retaliate against threatened treatment of black troops and their officers by the rebels)
Thomas E. Bramlette to William C. Goodlow, Saturday, March 12, 1864 (Enlistment of black soldiers; endorsed by John T. Croxton)
Ambrose E. Burnside to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 26, 1863 (Telegram concerning enrollment of black soldiers in Kentucky)
William S. Rosecrans to Abraham Lincoln, Saturday, February 20, 1864 (Telegram concerning pay for black soldiers)
Robert C. Schenck to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, June 30, 1863 (Telegram concerning enlistment of black soldiers)
Abraham Lincoln to Ulysses S. Grant, Sunday, August 09, 1863 (Expedition against Mobile and recruitment of black troops) Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 24, 1864 (Equal payment for black soldiers)
Jeremiah T. Boyle to James B. Fry, Thursday, June 25, 1863 (Telegram concerning the enlistment of black troops in Kentucky)
John A. Andrew to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 27, 1864 (Equal pay for black soldiers)
Abraham Lincoln to Nathaniel P. Banks, Sunday, March 29, 1863 (Recruitment of black soldiers)
National Freedman's Relief Association to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 29, 1863 (Resolutions concerning treatment of black soldiers)
Edwin M. Stanton to Edward Bates, Friday, June 17, 1864 (Payment for black soldiers)
Abraham Lincoln to Edward Bates, Friday, June 24, 1864 (Request for opinion regarding payment of black soldiers)
Charles Sumner to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, May 23, 1864 (Equal pay for black soldiers; with copy of amendment to Army Appropriations Bill)
Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, Saturday, April 02, 1864 (Report on black soldiers)
Thomas Webster to Abraham Lincoln, Thursday, November 05, 1863 (Equal pay for black soldiers)
David Tod to Edwin M. Stanton, Saturday, June 27, 1863 (Printed correspondence concerning payment of black soldiers)
Abraham Lincoln to Richard T. Jacob, Wednesday, January 18, 1865 (Jacob may return to Kentucky)
Salmon P. Chase to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, May 06, 1864 (Opinion on Fort Pillow massacre)
Thomas E. Bramlette to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, November 22, 1864 (Telegram regarding Richard Jacob and Frank Wolford)
Albert G. Hodges to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, May 10, 1864 (Kentucky politics)
Thomas E. Bramlette to Abraham Lincoln, Tuesday, March 08, 1864 (Opposes enlistment of black soldiers)
Thomas Worcester to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, May 16, 1864 (Fort Pillow massacre)
Abraham Lincoln to William H. Seward, Tuesday, May 03, 1864 (Fort Pillow massacre)
Robert J. Breckinridge to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, November 16, 1864 (Affairs in Kentucky)
E. W. Hawkins, et al. to Abraham Lincoln, Sunday, June 05, 1864 (Kentucky Unionists protest actions of Gov. Bramlette)
Albert G. Hodges to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, April 22, 1864 (Affairs in Kentucky)
George Robertson to Abraham Lincoln, Wednesday, November 19, 1862 (Telegram concerning fugitive slaves in Kentucky)
Frederick Douglass to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, August 29, 1864 (Plan for helping slaves escape from rebel states)
Francis H. Peirpoint to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, June 20, 1862 (Recommends using slaves for military work)
Buckingham Smith to William H. Seward, Thursday, October 09, 1862 (Emancipation of slaves owned by Unionists)
E. Cheek to Edward Bates, Wednesday, May 06, 1863 (Tennessee Unionist wants to keep his slaves)
Wisconsin Army Officer to His Wife, Friday, July 25, 1862 (Fugitive slaves)
Lewis Tappan to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, January 06, 1865 (Gen. Jefferson C. Davis' treatment of former slaves in Georgia; endorsed by Charles Sumner)
Frederick Steele to Abraham Lincoln, Sunday, February 15, 1863 (Explains his conduct in response to Lincoln's letter of Jan. 22)
William P. Thomasson to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, August 26, 1864 (Payment for slaves in Kentucky; endorsed by Lincoln on cover)
Joshua F. Speed to Abraham Lincoln, Sunday, September 01, 1861 (Situation in Kentucky)
William H. Randall to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, January 18, 1864 (Sends letter concerning affairs in Kentucky)
Leslie Combs to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, September 06, 1861 (Situation in Kentucky)
John Boyle to John P. Usher, Saturday, March 14, 1863 (Affairs in Kentucky)
Edwin M. Stanton to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, March 03, 1865 (Opinion on resolution to encourage enlistment of slaves)
Thomas Richmond to Abraham Lincoln, Sunday, November 15, 1863 (Abolition of slavery and enlistment of black soldiers)
Abraham Lincoln to William S. Speer, Tuesday, October 23, 1860 (Lincoln will not issue a public statement regarding his position on slavery)
Samuel Lusk to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, March 07, 1864 (Political affairs in Kentucky)
Leopold C. P. Cowper to Abraham Lincoln, Monday, June 30, 1862 (Seeks return of fugitive slave) Abraham Lincoln received many letters from angry slave owners who were loyal to the Union wanting their property returned.
William P. Thomasson to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, August 26, 1864 (Payment for slaves in Kentucky; endorsed by Lincoln on cover)
Unknown, April 11, 1861 (Memorandum on situation in Kentucky)
General Winfield Scott, Monday, October 29, 1860 (“Views suggested by imminent danger”; with note from Scott to Lincoln). Scott believed the Union was in danger of fragmenting.
T. S. Bell to Abraham Lincoln, Friday, December 06, 1861 T.S. Bell was writing to tell Lincoln of the Louisville Journal’s advice to Union officer’s to resign from the army.
W. Hamilton Stockwell to John P. Usher, Friday, August 28, 1863 (Citizenship for freedmen and affairs in Kentucky)
The mastership and its fruits: the emancipated slave face to face with his old master. A supplemental report to Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, secretary of war, by James McKaye, special commissioner. 1864 A look at slavery in Mississippi. History of American abolitionism : its four great epochs, embracing narratives of the ordinance of 1787, compromise of 1820, annexation of Texas, Mexican war, Wilmot proviso, negro insurrections, abolition riots, slave rescues, compromise of 1850, Kansas bill of 1854, John Brown insurrection, 1859, valuable statistics, &c., &c., &c., together with a history of the southern confederacy. (Originally published in the New York Herald 1861) : By F.G. De Fontaine.


“Interpreting Slavery at Kentucky Historic Sites & Houses” Conference at Kentucky History Center, August 13-14, 2007


Barton, Keith C. Barton, "Good Cooks and Washers: Slave Hiring, Domestic Labor, and the Market in Bourbon County, Kentucky,” The Journal of American History, Vol. 84 (Sep., 1997).
Berry, Wendell. The Hidden Wound (1989).
Bibb, Henry. An American Slave Written by Himself (1850) (repr 1969). A Kentucky story
Bogert, Pen. “Making Their Way To Freedom: Runaway Slave Advertisements From Louisville Newspapers, 1788 – 1860” (excerpt)
_____. "Sold for My Account: The Origins of the Slave Trade Between Kentucky and the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1787-1803,” Ohio Valley History (Spring, 2002).
_____. “Clark, the Slave Trade and the Illinois Regiment,” in Kenneth C. and Nancy S. Carstens, eds., The Life of George Rogers Clark, 1752-1818 (2004).
_____. Men of Fortune: Kentucky Slave Traders and Those Who Empowered Them (forthcoming)
Bullitt, Thomas Walker. My Life at Oxmoor: Life on a Farm in Kentucky Before the War.(updated 1995).
Clay, Cassius Marcellus. The Life of Cassius Marcellus Clay: Memories, Writings, Speeches… (1886).
Coleman, J. Winston. Slavery Times in Kentucky (1940).
Dennis, Samuel F., Jr. “Seeing Hampton Plantation: Race and Gender in a South Carolina Heritage Landscape,” in Richard H. Schein, ed. Landscape and Race in United States (2006).
Dunaway, Wilma A. Southern Laboring Women: The Gendered Boundaries of Race, Ethnicity, and Class in Antebellum Appalachia, 1700-1860 (2007).
_____. "Slavery and Emancipation in the Mountain South: Sources, Evidence and Methods," Virginia Tech, Online Archives:
Eslinger, Ellen. “Shape of Slavery on Kentucky Frontier, 1775-1800,” The Register (Winter, 1994).
Fleishner Jennifer, Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Keckly: The Remarkable Story of the Friendship Between a First Lady and a Former Slave (2004).
Harlow, Luke E. “Religion, Race, and Robert J. Breckinridge: Ideology of Antislavery Slaveholder, 1830-1860,” Ohio Valley History (fall, 2006).
Harrison, Lowell H. John Breckinridge: Jeffersonian Republican (1969).
Hopkins, James F. “Slavery in the Hemp Industry,” in A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky (1951).
_____., et al. eds. The Papers of Henry Clay (11 vols. 1959-92).
Hudson, Blaine. Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland (2002).
_____. “Crossing the Dark Line: Fugitive Slaves and The Underground Railroad in Louisville and North Central Kentucky.” Filson Quarterly (2001).
_____. “References to Slaveryin the Public Records of Early Louisville and Jefferson County, 1780 - 1812.” Filson Quarterly (1999).
_____. Slavery in Early Louisville and Jefferson County, 1780 - 1812.” Filson Quarterly (1999).
Hudson, Blaine and Amy Young. “Slave Life at Oxmoor,” Filson Quarterly (summer 2000).
Jackson, Andrew. Narrative and Writings of Andrew Jackson, of Kentucky; Includes account being a slave, escape, anecdotes Narrated by Himself; Written by a Friend. (1847).
“Kentucky Slave Law Summary and Record,” located online:
Klotter, James. The Breckinridges of Kentucky, 1760-1981(1986).
______. “Slavery and Race: A Family Perspective,” Southern Studies, XVII (Winter 1978).
______. “Slavery in Louisville”in R. Miller/ J.D. Smith eds., Dictionary of Afro-American Slavery (1988).
Lucas, Marion B. "Kentucky Blacks in the Civil War" in A History of Blacks in Kentucky. Vol. 1: From Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891 (1992).
______. "Camp Nelson, Kentucky, During the Civil War: Cradle of Liberty or Refugee Death Camp?" The Filson History Quarterly 63 (Oct. 1989).
Martin, Asa Earl. The Anti-Slavery Movement in Kentucky Prior to 1850. (1918).
Pitcaithley, Dwight T. “Abraham Lincoln’s Birthplace Cabin: Making of an American Icon,” in Paul Shackel’s Myth, Memory and Making of American Landscape (2001).
Pitts, Yvonne M. “Imposing Their Wills: Inheritance Practices, Family and Capacity in 19th Century Kentucky,” Ph.D. disser. University Iowa (2006).
______. “I Desire to Give My Black Family Their Freedom: Manumissions, Inheritance, and Visions of Family in Antebellum Kentucky,” in Boswell, Angela and Judith N. McArthur, eds. Women Shaping the South: Creating and Confronting Change (2006).
Roberts, Ida M. Rising Above It All: Tribute to Rowan Slaves of Federal Hill (1994).
Runyon, Randolph Paul. Delia Webster and the Underground Railroad (1996).
Sears, Richard D. Kentucky Abolitionists in Midst of Slavery 1854-1864: Exiles for Freedom (1993)
_____. Camp Nelson, Kentucky: A Civil War History (2002).
Shackel, Paul A. Myth, Memory and the Making of the American Landscape (2001).
______. “Working Like a Slave: Views of Slavery and Status of Women in Antebellum Kentucky,” The Register, (winter, 1989).
Tallant, Harold. Evil Necessity: Slavery & Political Culture in Antebellum Kentucky (2003).
Terry, Gail S. “Sustaining the Bonds of Kinship in a Trans-Appalachian Migration, 1790-1811: The Cabell-Breckinridge Slaves Move West,” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 102 (October 1994).
Townsend, William H. Lincoln & Bluegrass: Slavery and Civil War in Kentucky. (1955).
Weisenburger, Steven. Modern Medea: Family Story of Slavery and Child Murder from Old South (1988).
Windham, Jada. “The Dinsmore Homestead: Understanding Race and Gender,” unpub paper for NKU class Anthropology 273 (2006) online: (click on Jada Windham’s Final Essay)


Berlin, Ira. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk About their Personal Experiences of Slavery and Emancipation (1998).
Bibb, Henry. Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave (1849).
Federal Writers Project, 1936-1938. Slave Narratives Kentucky (n.d.)
Fedric, Francis. Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky (1863).
Fleischner, Jennifer. Mastering Slavery: Memory, Family, & Identity in Women’s Slave Narratives (1996).
Johnson, Isaac. Slavery Days in Old Kentucky (1901).
Krasovic, Mark. ‘Been Here so Long’:Selections from WPA American Slave Narratives. Biblio/lesson plans
Osofsky, Gilbert, ed. Puttin' On Ole Massa: The Slave Narratives of Henry Bibb, et al (1969).


Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts (1963).
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (1998).
______. Generations of Captivity: A History of Slaves in the United States (2002).
______. Remembering Slavery: African Americans Talk about their Personal Experiences of Slavery & Emancipation, a book/tape set (1998).
Blight, David. Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (2001).
Costanzo, Angelo, ed. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (2001).
Davis, David Brion. Inhuman Bondage: Rise & Fall of Slavery in New World (2006).
DuBois, W.E.B. Suppression of African Slave-Trade to the United States of America, 1638-1870 (1896).
Farrow, Anne, Joel Lang, Jenifer Frank. Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from the Slave Trade (2005).
Faust, Drew Gilpin. A Sacred Circle: The Dilemma of the Intellectual in the Old South, 1840-1860 (1977).
Finkelman, Paul. Defending Slavery: Proslavery Thought in the Old South (2003).
Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom, (1998) Book Website link:
Frederickson, George. The Black Image in the White Mind: The Debate on Afro-American Character and Destiny, 1817-1914 (1971).
Genovese, Eugene D. "Slavery Ordained of God": The Southern Slaveholders' View of Biblical History and Modern Politics (1985).
Golden, Claudia. Urban Slavery in the American South, 1820-1860.(1976).
Kolchin, Peter. American Slavery, 1619-1877 (1993).
Land, Aubrey C. Basis of Plantation Society (1969).
Jordan, Winthrop. White Over Black: American Attitudes Towards the Negro, 1550-1812 (1995).
Mitchell, Patricia B. Soul on Rice: African Influences on American Cooking (1993).
Morgan, Jennifer. “Slavery and the Slave Trade, 1600-1760,” in A Companion to American Women’s History, Nancy Hewitt ed. (2002).
Morgan, Jennifer L. “State of the Field: Slavery,” paper presented to Org. American Historians
_______. “Slavery and the Slave Trade, 1600-1760,” in A Companion to American Women’s History, Nancy Hewitt, ed. (2002).
Owens, Leslie H. This Species of Property: Slave Life & Culture in the Old South (1976).
Roediger, David R. The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class (1999).
Stampp, Kenneth. The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (1956).
Tallant, Harold. Evil Necessity : Slavery & Political Culture in Antebellum Kentucky (2003).
Thomas, Hugh. Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440-1870 (1997).
Tise, Larry. Proslavery: A History of the Defense of Slavery in America, 1701-1840 (1987).
Wade, Richard C. Slavery in the Cities: The South 1820-1860 (1964).
Wiley, Bell I. Letters from Liberia (1980).


Alsford, Stephen and David Parry. “Interpretive Theatre: A Role in Museums?” Museum Management and Curatorship 10 (1991).
Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South (1972).
Boland, Beth M. “Keeping Women in Their Historic Places: Bringing Women’s Stories to the Classroom,” CRM: Placing Women in the Past, vol. 20, No. 3 (1997).
Breeden, James O., ed. Advice Among Masters: The Ideal in Slave Management in the Old South (1980).
Burton, Orville V. In My Father's House Are Many Mansions: Family & Community in Edgefield, SC(1985)
Cooper, Beth. “Opening to Interpretation: Uniting Museums and Universities,” Museum Education Roundtable website:
Crow, Jeffrey J. “Interpreting Slavery in Classroom and at Historic Sites,” American Historical Association Perspectives (March 1998)
Donnelly, Jessica Foy., ed. Interpreting Historic House Museums (2003).
Dubrow, Gail Lee & J. B. Goodman. Restoring Women’s History through Historic Preservation. (2003)
Eichstedt, Jennifer and Stephen Small. Representations of Slavery: Race, Ideology in Southern Plantation Museums (2002).
______. “Racialized Ideologies and Plantation Museums,” in book cited above.
Ellis, Rex M. “Interpreting the Whole House,” in Jessica Donnelly’s Interpreting Historic House Museums
Gutek, Gerald and Patricia Gutek. Plantations and Other Museums in America’s Historic South (1996).
Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750-1925 (1977).
Handler, Richard and Eric Gable. The New History in an Old Museum: Creating the Past at Colonial Williamsburg. (1997).
Horton, James and Lois Horton. Slavery and Public History (2006).
Levy, Barbara Abramoff, et al. Great Tours: Thematic Tours and Guide Training for Historic Sites (2002).
Loewen, James W. Lies Across America: What Our Historic Sites Get Wrong (2000).
Macdonald, Sharron and Gordon Fyfe. eds. Theorizing museums: Representing Identity and Diversity in a Changing World (1996).
Melillo, Wendy. “Looking Past the Mansions: Two Men on a Mission to Make Information on Slavery a Bigger Part of Plantation Tours,” Washington Post, Sept. 25, 1991.
National Park Service, Rally on the High Ground, proceedings from conference found at:
Pitcaithley, Dwight. “Promise and Challenge: Interpreting Race and Slavery at Civil War Sites.” Conference Remarks.
Rahier, Jean Muteba and Michael Hawkins. “‘Gone with the Wind’ versus the Holocaust Metaphor: Louisiana Plantation Narratives in Black and White,’” in Thomas Duran’s Plantation Society and Race Relations: Origins of Inequality (1999).
Rose, Julia Anne. Rethinking Representations of Slavery Life at Historical Plantations: Towards a Commemorative Museum Pedagogy. Ph. D. disser. LSU (2006).
St. George, Robert Blair. “Placing Race at Jefferson’s Monticello,” in Dan Ben Amos & Liliane Weissberg, eds. Cultural Memory and the Construction of Identity (1999).
Schreiber, Susan P. “Interpreting Slavery at National Trust Sites: Case Study in Addressing Difficult Topics,” access online at:
Simon, Roger I., Sharon Rosenberg, Claudia Eppert, eds. Between Hope and Despair: Pedagogy and Remembrances of Historical Trauma (pp. 1-8,135-52), 2002.
Vlach, John Michael. Back of the Big House: The Architecture of Plantation Slavery (1993).
Walcott, Rinaldo. “The Middle Passage, Slavery and Problem of Creolization: Teaching Slavery and its Negative Associations,” in Simon’s Between Hope and Despair (2000).
Wallace, Michael. “The Politics of Public History” in Jo Blatti, ed. Past Meets Present: Essays about Historic Interpretation and Public Audiences (1987).
West, Patricia. Domesticating History: The Political Origins of America's House Museums (1999).
Weis, Tracey. “What’s the Problem? Connecting Scholarship, Interpretation, and Evidence in Telling Stories about Race and Slavery,” Textbooks & Teaching, annual section. Journal of American History (2006).


Appleton, Thomas H., Jr., Coryell, Sims, Treadway. Negotiating Boundaries of Southern Womanhood: Dealing with the Powers That Be (2000).
Appleton and Boswell. Searching for Their Places: Women in the South across Four Centuries. (2003).
Camp, Stephanie M. H. Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South. (2004).
______. "I Could Not Stay There: Enslaved Women, Truancy, and the Geography of Everyday Forms of Resistance in the Antebellum Plantation South."
Reprinted in Nancy Hewitt and Kirsten Delegard, eds., Women, Families and Communities: Readings in American History (1994).
______. "Gender and Sexuality in Slavery," The Encyclopedia of Slavery in the Americas, edited by Edward E. Baptist. (In press).
______. "The History of Women and Slavery: Considering the Impact of Ar't I a Woman?: Female Slaves in the Plantation South on 20th Anniversary of its Publication," Journal of Women's History. 19, 2 (June 2007).
______. "The Pleasures of Resistance: Enslaved Women and Body Politics in the Plantation South, 1830-1861." Reprinted in New Studies in the History of American Slavery, edited by Edward E. Baptist and Stephanie M. H. Camp. (2005).
______. "I Could Not Stay There: Enslaved Women, Truancy, and the Geography of Everyday Forms of Resistance in the Antebellum Plantation South," Slavery and Abolition, 23, 3 (December 2002).
Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress: Woman's World in the Old South. (1993).
_____. “Caught in the Web of Big House: Women & Slavery in Finckelman’s Women and the Family…
_____, ed. Half Sisters of History: Southern Women & American Past (1994).
Clinton, Catherine & Silber, Nina, eds. Divided Houses: Gender and the Civil War (1992).
Crafts, Hannah. The Bondswoman’s Narrative (1857). (Recently authenticated manuscript of what is probably the earliest novel by a black American woman.).
Edwards, Laura F., Scarlett Doesn't Live Here Anymore: Southern Women in the Civil War Era (1997).
Faust, Drew Gilpin Faust, “Culture, Conflict, and Community: The Meaning of Power on an Antebellum Plantation,” in Southern Stories: Slaveholders in Peace and War (1992).
_____. Mothers of Invention: Women of the Slaveholding South in the American Civil War (2004).
Finckelman, Paul, ed. Women & the Family in a Slave Society (1989).
Fleischner, Jennifer. Mastering Slavery: Memory, Family, and Identity in Women's Slave Narratives (1996).
______. Mrs. Lincoln and Mrs. Keckley: The Remarkable Story of the Friendship Between A First Lady and a Former Slave (2004).
Fox-Genovese, Elizabeth. Within the Plantation: Black and White Women of the Old South (1988).
Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., ed., Collected Black Women’s Narratives; Six Women’s Slave Narratives. ()
Gutman, Herbert. The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom (1976).
Hewitt, Nancy A. & Lebsock, Suzanne, eds. Visible Women (1993).
Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. “Female Slave Resistance: The Economics of Sex” in Black Women in American History. Vol 2. (1990).
Jacobs, Harriet, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. (2004 ed.).
Jones, Jacqueline Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow (1984).
Keckley, Elizabeth (ed. Frances Smith Foster). Behind the Scenes; Formerly a Slave, but More Recently Modiste, and Friend to Mrs. Lincoln or, Thirty Years a Slave and Four Years in White House(2001).
King, Wilma A Northern Woman in the Plantation South (1993).
Lebsock, Suzanne. Free Women of Petersburg (1984).
Leslie, Kent Anderson Woman of Color, Daughter of Privilege (1995)
McMillen, Sally. Southern Women: Black and White in the Old South (2002)
Morgan, Jennifer L. Laboring Women: Reproduction and Gender in New World Slavery (2004)
Morton, Patricia. Discovering the Women in Slavery (1996)
Schwatrtz, Marie Jenkins. Birthing a Slave: Motherhood and Medicine in Antebellum South (2006).
Scott, Anne Firor. The Southern Lady: From Pedestal to Politics (1970).
White, Deborah Gray. Ar'n't I a Woman? Female Slaves in the Plantation South (1985).
_____. “Female Slaves: Sex Roles & Status in Antebellum Plantation South.” In Clinton’s Half Sisters… Wolfe, Margaret Ripley. Daughters of Canaan: A Saga of Southern Women, 1994.
Wood, Kirsten E. Masterful Women: Slaveholding Widows from American Revolution through the Civil War (2004).



"Roads to Freedom" is an interactive exhibition that will allow students to explore the six routes most frequently taken by enslaved men and women who were seeking their liberty. Combining primary-source documents, images, slave narratives, spoken narration, and original music, the exhibition conveys the enormity of the challenges slaves faced and the intelligence, courage, and persistence with which they attempted to surmount them.

Slavery Gateway: Explore teacher evaluated Web sites on a wide variety of topics pertaining to slavery history and literature. The sites on this gateway have been recommended for their quality and resource value to teachers and students and will continue to grow as the site grows.

National Park Service Online Resources for Slavery: The National Park service offers many educational materials for teachers on the topic of slavery. Our teachers have combed the NPS web site and have organized the slavery related historic sites, lessons, and materials for easy access.

Lesson Plans: Teachers contribute their best lessons on the topics, events, and literature they think are the most important in the history of slavery in America. National Park Service Resources for Slavery Teaching with Historic Places offers a series of award-winning lesson plans that use places listed in the National Register to enliven the study of history, social studies, and geography. Clues to African-American Life at Manassas National Battlefield Park: This online exhibit includes interesting artifacts found at Manassa Battlefield. Celebrating African American Archaeology: Southeast Center organizes archaeological projects that create historical record – many projects Stories to Tell: African American History in Your Parks Narratives and Biographies of enslaved persons, plus images and biographies Protecting Our Diverse Heritage, proceedings from a National Park Service Joint Conference, 2003.

RE: WEBSITES of HISTORIC HOUSES/SITES where slavery is interpreted/ incorporated

Philipse Manor Hall: Yonkers, New York. is an unfurnished historic house – only a collection of 68 presidential portraits. Currently an exhibit in series of rooms, each with different focus on slavery: a quote from each president re: slavery; global slavery; vestiges of slavery.

Philipsburg Manor: in Tarrytown, NY, has interpreted its living history farm operation from viewpoint of enslaved persons working on their farm. There is no house – the family lived in New York City.

Magnolia Plantation (Charleston,SC): New program, From Slavery to Freedom, focuses on slave dwellings where interpretation includes interaction between slaves and Drayton family to illustrate how life on Southern plantation was experienced.

Drayton Hall (Charleston, SC): Interesting interpretation about generations of Bowen slaves from Barbados and Drayton white owners. Website is research-oriented/educational. An unfurnished house, they have dug up important objects used in interpretation.

Bush-Holley Historic Site (Greenwich,CT): Special tour focuses on history of slavery in CT, emphasizing roles of Bush slaves.

So. LA: The River Road: Go on a virtual journey to different plantations, discussing plantation life, both for the owners and the slaves. Includes pictures of standing slave quarters.

Melrose Plantation (Natchitoches, LA): The Melrose Interactive Slavery Environment, more than a year in making, takes students into Melrose, a pre-Civil War "suburban estate." Studentsexplore estate from perspective of men, women, and children who were enslaved there. After death of Melrose's owner in 1883, house left in care of former slaves, Jane Johnson and Alice Sims. These two women managed house and property resisting repeated attempts to remove fine furnishings.

William Johnson House was member of free African-American aristocracy, whose members owned property/operated businesses in Natchez – and owned slaves. He was murdered in 1851 over a land dispute. Interpreted as part of Natchez National Historical Park. Johnson's book. The Barber From Natchez, represents the most complete account of the life of a free African-American in the pre-Civil War South.

Colonial Williamsburg (VA): Lesson plans/teacher resources/E-Newsletter: “Anti-Slavery Images”; “Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Slavery During the Colonial Period”; “Hands-On History: Slave Bag of 18th C. Artifacts for Classroom”; April, 2007 Symposium, “Unifying the Divine & the Secular: Role of Theology & Law in Abolition of Slave Trade”; Electronic Field Trips:“The Slave Trade”( or “Trail of Whispers”; Slide Show about their African American interpreters; Many Videos: “A Day in the Life Of” 8 different people;

Monticello, Jefferson’s house(VA): Monticello Database packed with statistics re: enslaved population, details of occupations and transactions (sale, purchase, gift, hiring) . Curricular unit, “Finding Isaac Jefferson: A Monticello Slave”. Oral history project, Getting Word, interviewing descendants of Monticello slaves, findings online.

Mt. Vernon, Geo. Washington’s House(VA): Online Q&A includes Washington’s attitude on slavery. New Educa Ctr includes “The Dilemma of Slavery” audio recitation of slaves’ names & tasks; portraits, tools. History Channel video and interactive area

Sotterly Plantation (MD): focuses on how African & European Americans shaped and were shaped by a particular place. What do they reveal about the relationship of these people to each other and to the land? Includes original, rare slave cabin:

Montpelier: James Madison Home (VA). Slave descendants reunion.

Belle Meade Plantation (Nashville, TN): Tours take in the slave quarters and storied stud farm stable, including famous Black jockey

The Hermitage (Andrew Jackson):


H-Net Humanities & Social Sciences
H-Civil War
The Idea of the South
Slave Narratives

Charles Wright Museum of African American History, Detroit. “Unadorned” exhibit portrays history of slavery in America:

Fort, Bruce. Maintains American Slave Narratives: An Online Anthology. Includes annotated index to narratives and links to related sites

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from Federal Writers Project, 1936-1938. U.S. Library of Congress searchable website of interviews & photos or former slaves generated during the Depression.

Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture website.

Unchained Memories: Readings form the Slave Narratives. Companion site to HBO documentary: (teacher resources, etc.)

The Underground Railroad website sponsored by National Park Service.

“Slavery and the Slave Trade in Colonial New England,” essay for award-winning web site, “The Raid on Deerfield: The Many Stories of 1704.” Look at: History as Catalyst for Civic Dialogue and Museums and Civic Dialogue
Website of Hartford Courant showing how major newspaper documents a state’s slavery history
This is the Resource Bank – stories, actual documents, etc. – teacher resources which should some day be replicated with documents using KY history of slavery
Website for Cultural Interpretation and Living History section of the National Assoc. for Interpretation: to promote/improve interpretation of cultural & historical issues through training, education, publications, interdisciplinary communication. Workshops, shop Women and Social Movements in U.S.,1600-2000
Journal of Abraham Lincoln Association discusses A. Lincoln and Mary Todd L’s relationship to enslaved persons and indentured persons
Talking History Productions Radio Archives Website:
Click on June 16, 2005. “Slavery and the Making of America” conversation with Lois & James Horton
Click on April 14, 2005. Conversation with Catherine Clinton, “Women, Slavery, the South and the Civil War.” Site for Gilda Lerhman Center for Study of Slavery, Resistance, & Abolition (Slavery and Freedom in American History and Memory and Document Library) Schweninger, Loren. Race and Slavery Petitions Project, 1770-1865. Tens of thousands petitions to southern legislatures

Scholar's Edition of Women and Social Movements in the United States, 1600-2000

Teaching women's history through historic sites


. KET's "Kentucky's Underground Railroad: Passage to Freedom," televised spring 2000.

Interview, KET, on "Race and Slavery in Kentucky," February 22, 2000.(Tape Dept.: 1-800-945-9167)

Orlando Bagwell. Slavery and the Documentary: Bringing to Life the History of African Americans

Katrina Browne. Traces of the Trade: A Story from the Deep North (white privilege, as exploited by filmmaker’s ancestors)

Unchained Memories: Readings from the Slave Narratives presents dramatic selections from extensive Slave Narrative Collection via readings by actors, interspersed with archival photographs, music, film and period images. 74-minute HBO documentary.

Slavery and the Making of America examines history of U.S.slavery & role it played shaping country’s development. PBS (2005)

Amazing Grace Web site offers extensive information, plus study guide for students in grades 9-12.


Carnegie Center, New Albany, IN. Exhibit, “Ordinary People, Extraordinary Courage: Men and Women of the UndergroundRailroad in IN and KY Borderland,”

Farmington Historic House, Louisville. Brochure, “Slavery at Farmington” + case exhibit, special slavery tour, and slave interpretive characters

Dinsmore Homestead, Burlington, KY. Collaboration with NKU. Students research/writing papers on letters re: slavery at Homestead. Contact Cathy Collopy:

Locust Grove, Louisville. Hosted Dolores White’s production of “A Slave Wedding” 2006; include some slavery interpretation in the house & outbuildings + interpretive characters.

Waveland State Historic Site, Lexington. Includes slave quarters as part of their interpretive tour.

Freedom Center, Cincinnati. National Undergrouind Railroad Museum. New Exhibit, “Invisible Slavery Today: Unmasking the myths of Contemporary Slavery”; also a slave cabin from Kentucky on display

Underground Railroad Research Institute at Georgetown College conducts research, explore ole of African Americans in American history; share resources on KY Underground Railroad

CESKAA (Center of Excellence for Study of KY African Americans) at KSU collects, preserves, interprets and disseminates materials about KY African Americans.

Indiana History Digital Library
This cartoon shows a man wearing a crown and carrying a sledgehammer, resting his feet on a slave that is wrapped up in an American flag. Abraham Lincoln stands in the background with someone hiding behind him.
Cartoon of "Jupiter Abe" in the fields with working slaves announcing he's going to launch his Emancipation thunderbolt. The thunderbolt is atop an eagle carrying a shield designed with the American flag. The slaves working in the field are telling Lincoln to do whatever makes him happy, but to also make sure that they do not get hurt from emancipation.
Recruitment Poster for Colored Soldiers 1864
Text from Enlistment of Colored Soldiers Poster
Photograph of sketch of runaway slaves greeting Union soldiers

Civil War Letters
William Allen Clark, "'Please Send Stamps': The Civil War Letters of William Allen Clark," ed. Margaret Black Tatum, Indiana Magazine of History 91, no. 1 (March 1995): 81-107.William Clark, unlike most of his regiment was a Douglas democrat.
Jasper N. Bertram family letters, 1861-1865. As usual in family letters from Kentucky, some support the Union and some the Confederacy.,CivilWar&BuffaloSoldier.htm
Henry Parker, born in 1843 Aptonville, KY served in the Civil War in the 101st and then with the US 10th Cavalry until 1877.
Salmon Crane relieved letters from two of his sons in the union Army. They describe life in camp in Kentucky and the enlistment of slaves into the army.
William Boston’s letters describe Petersburg and the black regiments there.;cc=mans;q1=civil%20war;rgn=full%20text;view=image;seq=1;idno=tuttlecwd;didno=tuttlecwd;page=root;size=s;frm=frameset;
The diary of John Tuttle, Third Kentucky Infantry
Letters by William Christie and his family about the war.
Cassius Clay writing about John Fee.
Indiana Civil war letters
Absolom A. Harrison Company D, 4th Regiment, Kentucky Calvary Volunteers
Letters of Newton Scott from Iowa.
Civil War letters from Virginia and Pennsylvania
Civil War Love letters
Captain Richard W. Burt Civil War Letters From The 76th Ohio Volunteer Infantry
Absolom A. Harrison Company D, 4th Regiment, Kentucky Calvary Volunteers
Civil war letters
Civil war letters from Virginia and Pennsylvania
The Lenoir family from North Carolina letters describing their feelings about slavery, Yankees and black soldiers.
Letter from John P. Jones, Illinois celebrating the Emancipation Proclamation.
Civil War letters
Gustave Cook served with Terry’s Texas Rangers and describes the Battle at Perryville, Kentucky, 1862.,81
The JCPL Robert H. Milroy Collection of letters,. He was a noted abolitionist.
Alice Williamson Diary

Slave Narratives
Andrew Jackson: Slave narrative
J.D. Green: Slave Narrative
Kentucky Slave narratives,M1
Lewis and Milton Clarke: Slave narrative
Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky; or, Fifty Years of Slavery in the Southern States of America: Francis Fedric
An Autobiography. Bond and Free: or, Yearnings for Freedom, from My Green Brier House. Being the Story of My Life in Bondage, and My Life in Freedom: Israel Campbell
Life of Mary F. McCray Born and Raised a Slave in the State of Kentucky

Kentucky History
Overview of the Civil War and Kentucky
Overview of the Civil War
Kentucky History overview,M1
Chief Justice George Robertson of Kentucky, former slave owner and his interpretation of the 13th Amendment in 1867
To the Army and People of Kentucky: John T. (John Thomas) Pickett 1822-1884
Wilberforce, Lincoln, and the Abolition of Slavery website
South east Kentucky
Civil War monument to USCT soldiers in Frankfort.
Abraham Lincoln and his relationship with Kentucky.
The emancipation papers of Cloe and her children paid by Gibson, “a free man of color.” 1814
6th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry Regiment U.S.
Black Soldiers in the Civil War
Fighting for Freedom
Civil War website.
54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry
55th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry;read=9292
Kentucky Timeline
Notable Kentucky African Americans Database
Kentucky Historical Society
The American Slave Code in Theory and Practice: Its Distinctive Features Shown by Its Statutes, Judicial Decisions, and Illustrative Facts.
African American Odyssey
Kentucky Bibliography
Early Kentucky Tax Lists: 1792-1840
Camp Nelson
The American Civil War Homepage
Lincoln Log
Civil War in Kentucky
Civil War sources
Library of Congress Learning Page
The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
The Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance & Abolition
Kentuckiana Digital Library,+Kentucky&source=web&ots=2NcGKZp0RX&sig=vzuyiJlsPCAwmo0tmNj0PpmDnW8&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA158,M1
The Kentucky Encyclopedia
The African American experience in Ohio
African American Civil War soldiers
Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System

More Resources
Nice slide show.
Good general info
Rutherford B. Hayes Life before the Presidency

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